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Apa Penyebab Gempa di Jepang Sering Memicu Tsunami?

Apa Penyebab Gempa di Jepang Sering Memicu Tsunami?

Kompas.com – 02/01/2024, 17:30 WIB

Erwina Rachmi Puspapertiwi, Inten Esti Pratiwi Tim Redaksi

 

Informasi mengenai tsunami Jepang di Ishikawa setinggi 1,2 meter, Senin (1/1/2024).

Informasi mengenai tsunami Jepang di Ishikawa setinggi 1,2 meter, Senin (1/1/2024).(Tangkapan layar NHK Jepang) 02:18

 

KOMPAS.com – Gempa yang menghantam Jepang pada Senin (1/1/2024) memicu tsunami setinggi 1,2 meter di Prefektur Ishikawa.

Diberitakan Kompas.com, Selasa (2/1/2024), gempa berkekuatan magnitudo (M) 7,5 melanda Prefektur Ishikawa sekitar pukul 16.21 waktu setempat.

Akibat gempa, Badan Meteorologi Jepang mengumumkan gelombang tsunami setinggi 1,2 meter melanda Kota Wajima, Prefektur Ishikawa pada pukul 16:21 waktu setempat.

Kota Toyama, Prefektur Toyama juga dilanda tsunami setinggi 80 sentimeter pada pukul 16.35. Sementara Kota Kashiwazaki, Prefektur Niigata juga terkena tsunami setinggi 40 sentimeter pada pukul 16:36.

Gempa Jepang yang memicu tsunami tidak hanya terjadi kali ini saja. Pada Maret 2011, gempa magnitudo 9,0 di lepas pantai timur laut Jepang bahkan memicu tsunami yang menewaskan sekitar 18.500 orang.

Lalu, mengapa gempa di Jepang kerap memicu tsunami?

Penyebab gempa memicu tsunami di Jepang Pakar gempa sekaligus Dekan Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Irwan Meilano menjelaskan alasan gempa di Jepang sering memicu tsunami.

Menurutnya, gempa sering memicu tsunami jika terjadi di pantai timur Jepang. Namun kondisi ini berbeda dari gempa yang terjadi pada Senin kemarin.

“Gempa kemarin cukup unik karena ada di pantai barat (Jepang). Biasanya gempa yang besar di sisi timur,” ujarnya kepada Kompas.com, Selasa (2/1/2024).

Irwan menyebut, gempa kemarin menimbulkan tsunami di Jepang karena kekuatannya besar, mencapai magnitudo 7,5.

Selain itu, gempa menyebabkan adanya sesar lempeng Bumi yang naik serta getaran gempa terjadi secara datar. Menurut dia, Jepang mempunyai banyak titik pusat gempa di dasar laut.

Gempa dengan titik pusat di laut yang punya kekuatan besar akan memicu aliran gelombang besar menuju daratan.

 

Tsunami yang terjadi tidak besar

ilustrasi proses terjadinya tsunami.

ilustrasi proses terjadinya tsunami.(iStockPhoto/gmcoop)

Lebih lanjut, Irwan menyebut Badan Meteorologi Jepang mengumumkan peringatan dini tsunami setinggi 5 meter.

Kenyataannya, hanya terjadi tsunami di ketinggian 1,2 meter atau bahkan kurang dari itu di berbagai wilayah Jepang. “Magnitudonya (gempa kemarin) tidak lebih tinggi daripada gempa 2011 (menyebabkan tsunami 40 meter).

Kalau 2011, magnitudonya 9. Sekarang 7,5 kan,” lanjut dia. Menurut dia, gempa yang kemarin melanda Jepang ini membuat lempengan Bumi naik ke atas permukaan laut secara vertikal.

Beberapa pulau, kata dia, bahkan terangkat sampai satu meter. Kondisi ini membuat kolom air laut menjadi terangkat dan menghasilkan tsunami. Irwan juga membenarkan lempengan Bumi di Jepang memang cenderung bergerak atau patah ketika terjadi gempa sehingga menyebabkan tsunami.

Kondisi tersebut, kata dia, dapat juga terjadi di Indonesia.

Gempa di Indonesia bisa picu tsunami

Di sisi lain, Irwan menyatakan gempa yang melanda Indonesia memang berpotensi diikuti dengan tsunami seperti kondisi di Jepang. “Bisa berpotensi tsunami apabila lokasinya berada di laut, mekanisme sesar naik, dan magnitudonya cukup besar,” tambah dia.

Namun, gempa di Indonesia jarang memicu tsunami seperti Jepang karena tidak memenuhi ketiga kondisi tersebut.

Dia menjelaskan, Jepang sebenarnya juga sering mengalami gempa bumi yang berpusat di laut sehingga tidak selalu memunculkan peringatan tsunami.

“Dampak (gempa di laut dan darat) sama saja,” lanjutnya.

Irwan menambahkan, gempa yang di daratan sebenarnya lebih berdampak besar karena mudah merusak bangunan di sekitarnya.

Sementara gempa di laut cenderung kurang merusak. Hanya saja, ada potensi tsunami yang ditimbulkan saat gempa berpusat di laut.

 

2024 Sea of Japan earthquake

2024 Noto Peninsula earthquake
令和6年能登半島地震

Map

Map of main earthquake with related foreshocks and aftershocks (map data)
UTC time 2024-01-01 07:10:09
ISC event 636373819
USGS-ANSS ComCat
Local date 1 January 2024
Local time 16:10:09 JST (UTC+9)
Duration c. 40 seconds
Magnitude 7.6 MJMA
7.5 Mw
Depth 10 km (6 mi) (USGS)
Epicenter 37.498°N 137.242°E
Type Reverse
Areas affected Japan
Max. intensity
Peak acceleration 2.88 g (2,826 gal)
Tsunami 3 m (9.8 ft)
Landslides Yes
Foreshocks 5.7 MJMA
Aftershocks >1,200, largest being 6.1 MJMA  or 6.2 mb
Casualties 73 dead, 392 injured, 6 missing

On 1 January 2024, at 16:10 JST (07:10 UTC), a MJMA7.6 or Mw7.5 earthquake struck 7 km (4.3 mi) north-northwest of Suzu, located on the Noto Peninsula of Ishikawa PrefectureJapan. The reverse-faulting shock achieved a maximum JMA seismic intensity of Shindo 7 and Modified Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The shaking and accompanying tsunami caused extensive damage on the Noto Peninsula, particularly in the towns of Wajima, Suzu and Noto. All 73 fatalities occurred in Ishikawa while over 300 were injured across multiple prefectures.

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) officially named this earthquake the 2024 Noto Peninsula Earthquake (Japanese令和6年能登半島地震HepburnReiwa 6-nen Noto-hantō Jishin). It led to Japan’s first major tsunami warning since the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, and a tsunami measuring 3 m (10 ft) was observed along the Sea of Japan.

Tectonic setting

The Noto Peninsula lies on the southeastern margin of the Sea of Japan, which was formed by back-arc rifting related to subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate along the Japan Trench. This process began during the Early Miocene, ending in the Middle Miocene. By the late Pliocene the tectonic regime changed to compression, probably associated with collision between the Izu–Bonin Arc and Honshu.This led to reactivation of the rift faults in reverse sense, combined with inversion of the basins formed by these faults. Currently Japan is situated on the convergent boundaries between the Pacific, Philippine SeaOkhotsk and Amurian Plates. Along the island arc’s east and southeast coasts, subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates occurs at the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough, respectively. The west coast of Honshu, bordering the Sea of Japan, is a north–south trending convergent boundary between the Amurian and Okhotsk Plates. It has been proposed that it is an incipient subduction zone, consisting of eastward-dipping thrust faults.

The rifting and subsequent inversion has created a series of faults along the coast that have the potential to move and cause earthquakes, in the range of Mw 6.8–7.9, in many cases with tsunamis. Major earthquakes and tsunamis along this boundary occurred in 17411833194019641983 and 1993, although the origin of the 1741 tsunami remains open to debate. A fault known as the F43 (in the list of 60 faults evaluated) reaches the seabed just north of the Noto peninsula trending WSW–ENE. This southeast-dipping fault, which consists of two segments with a combined length of 94.2 km, has been judged to be capable of producing an earthquake of Mw 7.6.

The northeastern tip of the Noto Peninsula has been subject to an earthquake swarm for the last three years, with the largest earthquake being a Mw 6.3 event that took place in May 2023. The earthquake was the strongest to hit the Sea of Japan region since 1983 and the strongest to hit the peninsula since records began in 1885.

Earthquake

USGS ShakeMap

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported a moment magnitude of 7.5 and a focal depth of 10 km (6.2 mi) for the earthquake. The Japan Meteorological Agency recorded a magnitude of MJMA  7.6. It was the largest earthquake to strike Ishikawa since at least 1885, and the largest to strike Mainland Japan since the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.

The focal mechanism of the mainshock corresponded to shallow reverse faulting along a northeast-trending plane dipping northwest or southeast, happening along the convergent boundary between the Okhotsk Plate and Amurian Plate. A magnitude 5.5 foreshock struck four minutes before the mainshock, while a magnitude 6.2 aftershock struck nine minutes later. More than 1,200 aftershocks were recorded across a 100 km (62 mi) zone. At least seven of them registered a magnitude of 5.0 and above.

USGS generated Finite Fault Surface Projection

According to a finite fault model released by the USGS, the earthquake rupture extended approximately 200 km (120 mi) from southeast of the Noto Peninsula to Sado Island along a southeast-dipping fault. The zones of the largest slip occurred northeast and southwest of the hypocenter. The latter patch produced the largest displacement of 3.67 m (12 ft) beneath the peninsula. Another zone of slip occurred between the peninsula and Sado Island, producing up to 1.86 m (6 ft) of slip. The fault likely ruptured towards the seafloor at the peninsula while little to no slip was observed on the seafloor between the peninsula and Sado Island.

Ground effects

The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan said parts of the country moved up to 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) westwards with the maximum displacement observed at Wajima due to crustal deformation. At Anamizu, land shifted 1 m (3 ft 3 in) westwards. However, the agency said these movement could be slope or local ground movement instead. The agency also added that crustal uplift of 4 m (13 ft) occurred in western Wajima and 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) in northern Suzu.

Intensity

The Japan Meteorological Agency said it recorded a maximum seismic intensity of 7 (Shindo 7), the highest level on its seismic intensity scale, the first time that an earthquake of that intensity had been observed in the country since 2018. The maximum intensity was reported in Shika, Ishikawa Prefecture. Intensity 6+ was recorded in Nanao, Wajima, Suzu and Anamizu. Intensity 6– was recorded in Nagaoka in Niigata Prefecture and in Ishikawa’s Nakanoto and Noto. The earthquake was also felt by residents in Tokyo and across the Kanto Region and as far as Aomori Prefecture in the northern tip of Honshu to Kyushu in the south of the country. A peak ground acceleration of 2,826 gal was observed in Shika, which was close to that recorded during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake which measured 2,934 gal.

Locations with a seismic intensity of Shindo 5- and higher[28]
Intensity Prefecture Location
7 Ishikawa Shika
6+ Ishikawa NanaoWajimaSuzuAnamizu
6- Ishikawa NakanotoNoto
Niigata Nagaoka
5+ Ishikawa HakuiHōdatsushimizuKanazawaKomatsuKagaKahokuNomi
Niigata SanjōKashiwazakiMitsukeMinamiuonumaKariwaItoigawaMyōkōJōetsuChūō-kuMinami-kuNishi-kuNishikan-kuTsubameAgaSado
Toyama ToyamaFunahashiTakaokaHimiOyabeNantoImizu
Fukui Awara
5- Ishikawa HakusanTsubataUchinada
Niigata OjiyaKamoTōkamachiIzumozakiKita-kuHigashi-kuKōnan-kuAkiha-kuGosenAgano
Toyama NamerikawaKurobeKamiichiTateyamaAsahiTonami
Fukui FukuiSakai
Nagano NaganoShinanoSakae
Gifu TakayamaHida

Long Period Ground Motion

The JMA also reported that the Noto Region of Ishikawa Prefecture registered the highest possible Long Period Ground Motion (LPGM) intensity of 4.

Locations with a LPGM Class of III or higher
Class Prefecture Location
IV Ishikawa Noto Region
III Ishikawa Kaga Region
Toyama Eastern and Western Toyama
Niigata JōetsuChūetsuKaetsu Regions
Nagano Central Nagano

Tsunami

Japan

Map of Tsunami Warnings issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency at 1 January 2024 16:22 JST

Large parts of Japan’s western coast, from Hokkaido to Nagasaki Prefectures were immediately placed under a tsunami warning after the earthquake struck, with evacuation orders issued in Ishikawa, Niigata, Toyama, and Yamagata prefectures. The earthquake triggered a major tsunami warning, the first one since the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. Public broadcaster NHK said tsunami waves of 5 m (16 ft) could be expected, though much smaller waves later arrived. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said dangerous tsunami waves were possible within 300 km (190 mi) of the epicenter.

The evacuation orders covered 62,000 people, with 1,000 evacuees finding shelter at the Japan Air Self-Defense Force base in Wajima in Ishikawa Prefecture. The major tsunami warning was later downgraded to a tsunami warning at 20:30, about four hours after the earthquake. These tsunami warnings were later downgraded to advisories, which were eventually lifted at 10:01 on 2 January, about 18 hours after the earthquake.

The first waves were reported to have arrived at around 16:21, with tsunami waves exceeding 1.2 m (4 ft) striking Wajima. A tide gauge at the Shika Nuclear Power Plant recorded a rise of 3 m (9.8 ft) in tide level at between 17:45 and 18:00. A tsunami measuring 90 cm (35 in) struck Kanazawa, while a tsunami of 80 cm (31 in) struck Toyama Prefecture and Sakata, Yamagata Prefecture. Waves measuring 50 cm (20 in) were recorded in Nanao and Tsuruga while waves measuring 40 cm (16 in) were recorded at Kashiwazaki, Tobishima, and Sado Island. n Toyama city, a 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) wave was reported. In Hokkaido, waves of up to 60 cm (24 in) were reported in Setana, while 50 cm (20 in) waves struck Okushiri Island. The tsunami was recorded in Tottori Prefecture with heights of 0.6 m (2 ft 0 in) in Sakaiminato and 0.2 m (7.9 in) in Iwami; in ToyookaHyogo Prefecture, it reached 0.4 m (1 ft 4 in). A 0.4 m (1 ft 4 in) was recorded at the port area of MaizuruKyoto Prefecture.

Damage

In Suzu, homes were washed off their foundations and some were driven further inland. The earthquake and tsunami damaged or destroyed 90 percent of the town’s buildings. The tsunami capsized many fishing vessels and carried some onto land. Building collapses and overturned cars were observed from a news helicopter flyover of the city. A resident recalled tsunami waves washing over a road, picking up cars and debris; he also estimated the waves were 3 m (9.8 ft) above tide level. An estimated 100 ha (250 acres) of Suzu was affected, although it is thought to be much wider. Ishikawa Prefecture’s governor, Hiroshi Hase, said the tsunami flooded the Iida Port area by up to 100 m (330 ft) inland.[48] In Shika, a series of tsunami waves reached the port at 17:40.

In the Shiromaru area of Noto, Ishikawa, homes were washed away and a fire was started. In Jōetsu, Niigata, the tsunami damaged buildings. Beach houses and other buildings were swept away by the waves. Ten fishing vessels capsized in the Ogata Fishing Port area. Containers were also washed away and warehouses storing machinery were flooded.

Elsewhere along the Sea of Japan

The Korea Meteorological Administration warned that the coastlines of Gangwon Province and Pohang in South Korea could experience a rise in sea levels. Waves of 0.3 m (1 ft) were anticipated along the nation’s east coast from 18:29 to 19:17 local time. A 0.45 m (1 ft 6 in) tsunami was later reported to have occurred in Gangwon. A 0.85 m (3 ft) high wave reportedly struck Mukho at around 20:00 local time. Tsunamis with heights of 0.66 m (2 ft 2 in) were recorded in Uljin; 0.45 m (1 ft 6 in) in Sokcho and 0.39 m (1 ft 3 in) in Gangneung. It is thought to be the first tsunami of over 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) observed in the country since 1993. According to Yonhap News Agency, citing North Korean state radio, a tsunami warning was issued with waves of 2.08 m (6 ft 10 in) potentially hitting the country’s east coast.

Warnings for tsunami waves estimated to reach 1 m (3 ft) were also issued in Russia, particularly along the west coast of Sakhalin Island, where evacuations were said to be conducted, although Russia later said that no evacuations were taking place there. Tsunami warnings were also declared in Vladivostok and Nakhodka, as well as other parts of Primorsky Krai and Khabarovsk Krai. The Emergencies Ministry of Russia said “response teams are ready to deal with the possible consequences of a tsunami.” Officials in Vladivostok later said “no tsunami was observed” while in Nakhodka, “the tsunami passed almost unnoticed.”

Impact

Damaged stone wall at Kanazawa Castle

The earthquake struck as Japan was marking New Year’s Day, a public holiday when many were at home and most establishments were closed. At least 73 people were killed, all of them in Ishikawa Prefecture; there were 39 deaths in Wajima, 23 in Suzu, five in Nanao, two each in Noto and Anamizu, and one each in Hakui and Shika. At least 323 people were also injured in the prefecture, including 22 who sustained serious injuries. Six people were missing in Anamizu. By 3 January, a total of 31,800 people were living in shelters following the earthquake, with about 27,700 sheltering in 336 evacuation centers in Ishikawa prefecture alone. Damage was especially severe in Wajima, Suzu and Noto although their extent was unclear.

In Wajima, at least 60 houses collapsed and 10 people were trapped. A fire occurred in the city around 17:00. Due to damaged roads, firefighters were unable to extinguish the flames, which consumed an estimated 200 buildings, including many homes. More than 30 people were injured in the city. Injuries were also reported in Suzu, where up to 5,000 houses and 90 percent of the buildings were destroyed, including many due to fires. The mayor of Suzu said about 4,000 to 5,000 households of the city’s 6,000 were unable to return home, adding that damage was “catastrophic”.

The Ishikawa Nanao Police Station said collapsed homes trapped people before they were rescued. A spokesperson at Wajima Municipal Hospital said people had broken bones or were injured by falling objects. Besides the two fatalities, one person was injured in Shika. Seventeen buildings collapsed, 24 were partly destroyed and 19 were partially damaged in Shika. In Anamizu, one person was unconscious and nine buildings collapsed. Across the mountainous region of the peninsula, landslides were widespread.

Twenty homes in Shiromaru, Noto, were destroyed by fire, while many others collapsed. A tsunami also washed debris onto streets. Operations of the Noto Airport were suspended after five cracks as long as 10 m (33 ft) appeared on the runway; the terminal of the airport also sustained damage. Access roads leading to the airport were blocked, while about 500 passengers were left stranded inside the facility, which was expected to be closed until 4 January. Access to the northern part of the Noto Peninsula was limited by a damaged road. Noto Island was isolated after the bridge linking it to Nanao in Honshu was closed.

At least 37 people in Toyama Prefecture were injured, three of them seriously. Eight of the injuries occurred after the ceiling of a pachinko parlor collapsed in Toyama City. Over 100 buildings were damaged. In Niigata Prefecture, 21 people were injured, many buildings collapsed, and roads were damaged. many buildings collapsed, and roads were damaged. One cardiac arrest case was reported in an elderly person in the prefecture, likely linked to the earthquake. In Fukui Prefecture, six people sustained minor injuries. Two injuries were also reported each in Osaka and Hyōgo Prefectures, while another person was injured in Gifu Prefecture.

Cracked roads and broken water mains were reported in the cities of Himi and Oyabe, Toyama Prefecture. Liquefaction occurred in Niigata city; sewer pipes also ruptured and many homes were left without water. In Shika, water was being rationed daily at six litres per person following the earthquake. Thirty homes, mostly in Nishi-ku, were damaged. The Onohiyoshi Shrine in Kanazawa also sustained damage. A landslide struck the main expressway between Toyama and Kanazawa, ripping apart several hundred meters of roadway. Four houses along a hill fell over as the land under them collapsed in the eastern part of Kanazawa. Sections of Japan National Route 8 was buried by landslides in Joetsu, while track foundations caved in at the JR Echigo Line.

Around 260 convenience stores in the affected areas belonging to 7-11 and Family Mart were closed, while delayed deliveries were reported due to road closures. NTT DocomoRakuten Mobile, Softbank and KDDI reported telecommunications and internet service disruptions in Ishikawa and Niigata prefectures, while NTT West said its facilities were damaged by the earthquake. At Shika Nuclear Power Plant, an explosion occurred near the power transformer of the No. 2 reactor, while the transformer at the No. 1 reactor was rendered inoperable due to an oil spill that spewed 7,100 liters.  The site’s 4 m (13 ft) high seawall was found to have tilted by around several centimeters following the earthquake.

At least 36,000 households and 19 medical facilities lost power following the earthquakeand more than 95,000 households were left without water. By the morning of 3 January, the number of households without power had dropped to approximately 33,900.

Response

JMSDF personnel in Maizuru loading relief supplies onto the JS Hiuchi bound for the Noto Peninsula

Prime Minister Fumio Kishida announced the establishment of a special emergency center to gather and disseminate information on the earthquake and tsunami. Defense minister Minoru Kihara ordered the Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) to assist in rescue efforts. He later announced the deployment of 2,000 JSDF personnel to the affected region, with 8,500 others on standby. About 20 JSDF aircraft were also dispatched to survey the damage. About 3,000 rescuers were sent to the Noto Peninsula alone. Due to blocked roads, humanitarian aid was sent to the peninsula using ships, while other isolated areas were accessed through helicopters.

Kansai Electric Power CompanyTokyo Electric Power Company and Hokuriku Electric Power Company said they were inspecting their nuclear power plants for abnormalities.

Both the Kansai and Hokuriku Electric Power Companies later said no abnormalities were reported, with the reactors at the latter’s Shika Nuclear Power Plant in Ishikawa Prefecture having been closed for inspections at the time of the earthquake. The Japanese Nuclear Regulation Authority also found no irregularities in power plants along the Sea of Japan coastline. Hokuriku Electric Power Company also shut down two generators at its Nanao Ota thermal power plant in Nanao.

Shinkansen services were suspended in central and eastern parts of Japan following the earthquake, stranding at least 1,400 passengers aboard four stalled trains between Toyama and Kanazawa for about 11 hours. Among those stranded on the bullet train services was the Georgian ambassador to Japan, Teimuraz Lezhava. Local train services were also halted for up to 24 hours following the earthquake, stranding about 1,400 passengers aboard express trains. Shinkansen services resumed in the afternoon of 2 January. Several major highways in the affected areas were also closed. All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines cancelled flights to Toyama, Ishikawa, and Niigata prefectures for the rest of 1 January. Japan Airlines subsequently announced additional flights to Komatsu Airport in Ishikawa Prefecture and Niigata Airport on 2 January.

By the morning of 3 January, Japan Railways partially resumed services, however, some local lines remained suspended. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) confirmed that Noto Airport would remain closed until 4 January, with the resumption of services remaining indefinite.

Ishikawa, Niigata, Toyama and Fukui prefectures requested financial support for 47 municipalities under the Disaster Relief Act, under which the national government is expected to cover 50 to 90 percent of expenses for disaster response and rehabilitation. The Japanese health ministry also instructed hospitals to offer health insurance coverage to patients affected by the quake, including those without insurance certificates. Authorities in Ishikawa prefecture opened an email help line to assist affected residents and tourists.

Reactions

Emperor Naruhito‘s annual New Year appearance and greetings to the public on 2 January was cancelled due to the earthquake.The Imperial Household Agency said it was the first time that the event was cancelled due to a natural disaster. It also reported that the Imperial couple “wish that rescue operations and fire-fighting efforts in affected areas will progress as quickly as possible amid the severe cold weather.”

Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-Wen, Philippine President Bongbong Marcos, Vietnamese Prime Minister Phạm Minh Chính, French President Emmanuel Macron, Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, United States President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Manet, Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Chilean President Gabriel Boric, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Thai Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin, Malaysian Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, Polish President Andrzej Duda, Tanzanian President Samia Suluhu Hassan, Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez, South Korean President Yoon Suk Yeol, Swedish Prime Minister Ulf Kristersson, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese sent condolences and said that they are ready to send any assistance to Japan.The Armed Forces of the Philippines also offered to collaborate with the JSDF in its response to the earthquake.International Monetary Fund Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva and Pope Francis also expressed their prayers to the victims of the earthquake.

Misinformation

Misinformation about the earthquake spread on social media platforms such as X (formerly Twitter). Users falsely linked a November 2023 video of an underwater earthquake in Indonesia, photos of the 2011 Tōhoku and 2016 Kumamoto earthquakesand a 2021 landslide to the earthquake.At least one account, claiming to belong to a victim of the earthquake, was found to be using misinformation to seek donations online.Misleading claims were also made of the earthquake being man-made, with video citing a previous nuclear weapons test by North Korea.

NERV, an app that provides emergency information using data from the Japan Meteorological Agency, experienced rate limiting on X due to posting frequent updates about the earthquake.

Aftermath

On the evening of 2 January, a collision occurred at Haneda Airport in Tokyo between a Japan Coast Guard aircraft carrying humanitarian aid to earthquake victims in Niigata and Japan Airlines Flight 516, an A350-900 from New Chitose Airport, destroying both aircraft. All 379 people aboard the JAL plane were evacuated; however, 14 sustained injuries.The captain of the Coast Guard plane escaped with critical injuries, while the remaining five crew members were killed.

Japan earthquake death toll rises to 55, government says | Euronews

Japan earthquake: 'Battle against time' to find survivors as tsunami  warnings lifted, death toll rises | CNN

LIVE UPDATES: Japan Earthquake on January 1, 2024

 

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