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HomeAsuransiStandar Keselamatan Landas Pacu Bandara Haneda Jepang Jadi Sorotan usai Tabrakan Pesawat

Standar Keselamatan Landas Pacu Bandara Haneda Jepang Jadi Sorotan usai Tabrakan Pesawat

Standar Keselamatan Landas Pacu Bandara Haneda Jepang Jadi Sorotan usai Tabrakan Pesawat

Kompas.tv – 3 Januari 2024, 15:35 WIB

 

 

standar-keselamatan-landas-pacu-bandara-haneda-jepang-jadi-sorotan-usai-tabrakan-pesawat Japan Airlines JAL516 terbakar di Bandara Haneda, Tokyo usai bertabrakan dengan pesawat Penjaga Pantai Jepang yang membawa logistik untuk korban gempa, Selasa (2/1/2024).
Penyelidik Jepang hari Rabu, (3/1/2024) bersiap menelusuri kecelakaan dua pesawat di Bandara Haneda Tokyo, dengan pusat perhatian berada di standar keselamatan pesawat di wilayah bandara, termasuk di landas pacu. (Sumber: Kyodo News via Associated Press)

Penulis : Edwin Shri Bimo | Editor : Vyara Lestari

PARIS, KOMPAS.TV – Penyelidik Jepang bersiap menelusuri kecelakaan dua pesawat di Bandara Haneda Tokyo, Rabu (3/1/2023). Standar keselamatan pesawat di wilayah bandara, termasuk di landas pacu, jadi fokus perhatian.

Seluruh 379 penumpang di pesawat Japan Airlines Airbus A350 berhasil selamat setelah bertabrakan dengan pesawat turboprop De Havilland Dash-8 Coast Guard, yang menewaskan lima dari enam awak pesawat yang lebih kecil, sesuai laporan Straits Times, Rabu (3/1).

Pihak berwenang menyatakan Badan Transportasi Keselamatan Jepang (JTSB) akan memimpin penyelidikan ini dengan partisipasi Prancis sebagai tempat pesawat itu dibangun, dan Inggris tempat dua mesin Rolls-Royce-nya diproduksi.

Meskipun para ahli memperingatkan saat ini terlalu dini untuk menentukan penyebab pasti, mereka menekankan, kebanyakan kecelakaan disebabkan oleh kombinasi berbagai faktor.

Namun, diharapkan penyelidik akan memeriksa instruksi yang diberikan oleh air traffic controller atau pemandu lalu lintas udara kepada kedua pesawat, serta melakukan pemeriksaan mendalam terhadap sistem pesawat dan bandara.

Seorang pejabat kementerian di Jepang kepada wartawan pada 2 Januari mengatakan pesawat dari jenis A350 itu sedang mencoba mendarat dengan normal ketika bertabrakan dengan pesawat Coast Guard, yang juga dikenal sebagai Bombardier Dash-8.

Salah satu tugas awal penyelidikan adalah mengambil kotak hitam perekam data penerbangan dan rekaman suara kokpit.

Para ahli menyatakan lokasi kecelakaan memungkinkan bukti fisik, data radar, dan kesaksian atau rekaman kamera kemungkinan besar akan dengan mudah tersedia, sehingga akan mempermudah tugas forensik yang kompleks.

“Salah satu pertanyaan yang muncul adalah apakah pesawat penjaga pantai berada di landasan pacu, dan jika ya, mengapa,” kata Paul Hayes, direktur keselamatan penerbangan di Ascend by Cirium, konsultan berbasis di Inggris.

Bangkai pesawat Japan Airlines yang terbakar terlihat di bandara Haneda pada Rabu, (3/12024), di Tokyo, Jepang. Pesawat penumpang besar dan pesawat penjaga pantai Jepang bertabrakan di landasan pacu Bandara Haneda Tokyo pada hari Selasa dan terbakar, menewaskan beberapa orang di dalam pesawat penjaga pantai (Sumber: AP Photo)

Kecelakaan ini menjadi kecelakaan signifikan pertama yang melibatkan Airbus A350, jet penumpang jarak jauh andalan Eropa, yang beroperasi sejak tahun 2015.

Menurut data awal tahun 2023, tabrakan pesawat Coast Guard dengan pesawat penumpang yang baru berusia dua tahun ini terjadi setelah satu tahun penerbangan yang paling aman.

Namun, kejadian ini juga muncul setelah kelompok keselamatan berbasis di AS memperingatkan bulan lalu tentang risiko tabrakan landasan pacu atau “inkursi”.

Flight Safety Foundation menyerukan tindakan global untuk mencegah peningkatan inkursi atau tabrakan di landas pacu seiring dengan padatnya lalu lintas udara.

“Meskipun telah dilakukan upaya selama bertahun-tahun untuk mencegah tabrakan di landasan, kecelakaan masih tetap terjadi,” kata CEO Hassan Shahidi dalam sebuah pernyataan.

“Risiko inkursi (tabrakan) landasan pacu adalah keprihatinan global, dan konsekuensi potensial dari inkursi itu sangat serius.”

Meskipun tabrakan di darat yang melibatkan cedera atau kerusakan telah menjadi kejadian jarang, potensi kehilangan nyawa termasuk yang tertinggi di antara kategori kecelakaan lainnya, dan hampir-tabrakan lebih umum terjadi.

Tabrakan antara dua Boeing 747 di Tenerife pada tahun 1977, yang menewaskan 583 orang, tetap menjadi kecelakaan penerbangan paling mematikan.

Bangkai pesawat penjaga pantai Jepang yang terbakar terlihat di bandara Haneda pada Rabu, (3/12024), di Tokyo, Jepang. Pesawat penumpang besar dan pesawat penjaga pantai Jepang bertabrakan di landasan pacu Bandara Haneda Tokyo pada hari Selasa dan terbakar, menewaskan beberapa orang di dalam pesawat penjaga pantai (Sumber: AP Photo)

Jurang Teknologi

Yayasan yang berbasis di Washington itu menemukan bahwa kegagalan komunikasi dan koordinasi dapat menjadi penyebab kecelakaan di landas pacu atau peristiwa hampir-tabrakan.

Namun, kekhawatiran juga muncul terkait kurangnya kelengkapan elektronik untuk menghindari tabrakan di darat, bukan di udara, di mana perangkat lunak untuk memicu penghindaran telah tersedia sejak tahun 1980-an.

“Banyak insiden serius dapat dihindari melalui teknologi kesadaran situasional yang lebih baik yang dapat membantu pengontrol lalu lintas udara dan pilot mendeteksi konflik potensial di landasan pacu,” kata Dr. Shahidi.

Federal Aviation Administration menyatakan sekitar tiga puluh bandara di Amerika Serikat (AS) telah dilengkapi dengan sistem bernama ASDE-X yang menggunakan radar, satelit, dan alat navigasi multilateral untuk melacak pergerakan di darat.

Namun, Ketua National Transportation Safety Board, Jennifer Homendy, menyatakan pada November bahwa jaringan penerbangan AS, yang merupakan penentu arah bagi bandara di seluruh dunia, kurang punya teknologi yang cukup untuk mencegah tabrakan landasan pacu.

Pada tahun 2018, Airbus mengumumkan kerja sama dengan Honeywell untuk mengembangkan sistem bernama SURF-A atau Surface-Alert yang dirancang untuk membantu mencegah tabrakan landasan pacu dengan memberikan peringatan visual dan audio kepada pilot mengenai bahaya yang mendekati landasan pacu.

 

Honeywell Aerospace Technologies berharap bahwa SURF-A, yang saat ini dioperasikan pada pesawat uji eksperimental, akan mendapatkan sertifikasi dan tersedia secara bertahap untuk maskapai dalam beberapa tahun mendatang, kata CEO divisi Jim Currier melalui email.

Reformasi yang luas terhadap jaringan lalu lintas udara Eropa dan AS yang dapat mempercepat penggunaan sistem komputerisasi semacam itu telah menghadapi keterlambatan yang kronis.

Airbus belum memberikan tanggapan atas permintaan komentar.

Steve Creamer, mantan direktur senior Organisasi Penerbangan Sipil Internasional, menyatakan bahwa mencegah pesawat yang akan mendarat menabrak pesawat merupakan salah satu dari lima prioritas keselamatan global tertinggi.

Meskipun pendaratan otomatis semakin meningkat, para ahli mengatakan bahwa banyak hal masih bergantung pada pemeriksaan visual oleh pilot yang mungkin teralihkan oleh beban kerja yang tinggi atau oleh kekaburan landasan pacu pada malam hari.

“Saya pikir penyelidikan akan fokus banyak pada klarifikasi… dan juga apa yang bisa dilihat oleh kru (JAL). Apakah mereka bisa melihat pesawat itu di landasan pacu secara fisik,” kata John Cox, mantan penyelidik kecelakaan udara AS.

 

2024 Haneda Airport runway collision

2024 Haneda Airport runway collision
Japan Airlines Flight 516 · Japan Coast Guard DHC-8

Wreckage of JA13XJ taken a day after the collision
Accident
Date 2 January 2024
Summary Runway collision, under investigation
Site Runway 34R, Haneda Airport, Tokyo, Japan
Total fatalities 5
Total injuries 15
Total survivors 380
First aircraft

JA13XJ, the Japan Airlines Airbus A350 involved in the accident, pictured at Haneda Airport in 2023
Type Airbus A350-941
Operator Japan Airlines
IATA flight No. JL516
ICAO flight No. JAL516
Call sign JAPAN AIR 516
Registration JA13XJ
Flight origin New Chitose Airport, Sapporo, Japan
Destination Haneda Airport, Tokyo, Japan
Occupants 379
Passengers 367
Crew 12
Fatalities 0
Injuries 14
Survivors 379
Second aircraft

JA722A, the Japan Coast Guard Dash 8 involved in the accident, pictured at Haneda Airport in 2023
Type DHC-8-315 Dash 8
Name Mizunagi
Operator Japan Coast Guard
Registration JA722A
Flight origin Haneda Airport, Tokyo, Japan
Destination Niigata Airport, Niigata, Japan
Occupants 6
Crew 6
Fatalities 5
Injuries 1
Survivors 1

On 2 January 2024, at approximately 17:47 JST (08:47 UTC), a runway collision occurred between Japan Airlines Flight 516, an Airbus A350-900, and JA722A, a De Havilland Canada Dash 8 operated by the Japan Coast Guard. Flight 516 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight from New Chitose Airport near Sapporo, Japan to Haneda Airport in Tokyo. While Flight 516 was landing at Haneda Airport, the two aircraft collided and caught fire.The collision killed five of the six crew onboard the Dash 8, but all 367 passengers and 12 crew were evacuated from the A350 with no loss of life.

Both aircraft were destroyed by fire following the crash, marking the first serious incident involving an A350 and the first hull loss of the type since its introduction in 2015, as well as the first hull loss by accident of an all-composite aircraft. It was both the first fatal accident and the first hull loss involving a Japan Airlines aircraft since the crash of Flight 123 in 1985.

Aircraft

The Japan Airlines (JAL) aircraft involved in the accident was an Airbus A350-941, registered as JA13XJ with manufacturer serial number 538. The aircraft was about two years old at the time of the collision, taking its first flight on 20 September 2021 and was delivered to JAL on 10 November that same year.

The Japan Coast Guard aircraft involved was a De Havilland Canada Dash 8-300, registered as JA722A with manufacturer serial number 656. The aircraft was about 16 years old, taking its first flight in November 2007, and was delivered to the Coast Guard in March 2009. The aircraft involved was damaged in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami while it was parked at Sendai Airport and was the only aircraft damaged there to be repaired after the disaster.

Incident

Airport layout

JAL Flight 516 departed New Chitose Airport at 16:27 JST (07:27 UTC) en route to Haneda Airport. While the flight would land after dark, the weather conditions at Haneda were unremarkable: light and variable winds, visibility greater than 10 km (6.2 mi), few clouds at 2,000 ft (610 m) and a scattered cloud layer at 9,000 ft (2,700 m). 

At approximately 17:47 JST (08:47 UTC), while landing at Haneda Airport on runway 34R, Flight 516 collided with a Japan Coast Guard DHC-8-315 Dash 8. CCTV footage shows a fireball erupted from the planes, with the JAL aircraft leaving a fiery trail as it moved down the runway before coming to a stop, and smoke entered its cabin. Fire services arrived at the site in about three minutes, with about 100 fire engines responding. According to the Tokyo Fire Department, the fire was mostly extinguished shortly after midnight, by which time the plane’s structure had collapsed due to the intensity of the flames. The collision and subsequent fire were caught on CCTV video from Terminal 2. 

All 367 passengers and 12 crew members onboard JAL Flight 516 exited using three of the aircraft’s eight evacuation slides located in the front of the plane. JAL said the aircraft’s in-flight announcement system stopped functioning, forcing the crew to give out instructions using megaphones. Among those onboard were 12 Australian nationals and eight children. Fourteen people onboard had minor injuries, with four of them being sent to a hospital. It was observed that no one exited with their carry-on luggage, a factor which aided smoother evacuation from the aircraft. Another factor cited in the survival of those on board was that the aircraft, which is one of the first commercial models to be made of composite, carbon-fibre materials, also appeared to have relatively withstood the initial impact of the collision and fire. The evacuation was completed within a span of 20 minutes.

The Japan Coast Guard aircraft carrying six crew members were preparing to fly supplies to an airbase in Niigata in response to the Sea of Japan earthquake which happened the day before. It was one of four aircraft deployed by the government to provide help to the affected areas. The captain, who reported that his aircraft had exploded following the collision, survived with serious injuries, while the five remaining crew members were confirmed dead by the Tokyo Fire Department. The wreckage of the Japan Airlines plane wound up several hundred meters from where the Coast Guard aircraft was.

Aftermath

A sign indicating the suspension of ANA flights inside Terminal 2 of Haneda Airport

Although all passenger and crew on the Airbus A350 were evacuated with few minor injuries, the plane was damaged beyond repair. The aircraft following immediately behind Flight 516 – JAL166, a Boeing 737-800 approaching runway 34R – performed a go-around at 1,150 feet (350 m) before diverting to Narita Airport. There were also several flights waiting for takeoff; most returned to the terminal after the runways were closed.

The incident occurred as millions were traveling for the New Year holidays, one of the busiest travel periods of the year. All runways at Haneda Airport were temporarily closed following the crash, and many flights were diverted to nearby Narita International Airport, as well as Chubu Centrair International Airport and Kansai International Airport. Others were cancelled as the result of the crash, with All Nippon Airways registering 112 domestic flight cancellations for the rest of the day and Japan Airlines cancelling 116 domestic flights. At around 21:30 JST (12:30 UTC), Haneda Airport’s remaining three runways were reopened according to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). Additional cancellations were announced on 3 January, while a total of 20,000 passengers were affected by flight disruptions following the accident.

The Japanese government set up an information liaison office at the Crisis Management Center in the Prime Minister’s Office. The Japan Transport Safety Board announced that a formal investigation will begin on 3 January 2024.

Reactions

Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida extended his condolences to the dead, referring to their service to the victims of the 2024 Sea of Japan earthquake.

IATA posted on Twitter extending its condolences to the passengers and crew onboard the two aircraft. They also expressed condolences regarding the previous day’s earthquake.

Airbus released a statement confirming it was in communication with JAL and would “communicate further details when available”. It also said that it was sending specialists to help in the investigation.

JAL released a statement confirming the events of the runway collision, and sent condolences to the families and friends of the five people killed. It also apologized for the inconvenience and distress caused to passengers, friends, families and everyone affected by the incident, and gave assurances that it would cooperate with the investigation.

Investigation

The Japan Transport Safety Board announced that it had recovered the flight data and voice recorders of the coast guard aircraft, while the search for those of the JAL plane was ongoing.

The French Bureau of Enquiry and Analysis for Civil Aviation Safety (BEA) announced on Twitter that they will be cooperating with Airbus during the investigation. It also added that it would send a team to Japan to investigate the incident.

Following the collision, the MLIT announced that prior to the accident, air traffic controllers cleared the JAL aircraft to land on runway 34R, while the Coast Guard aircraft was instructed to hold short of the runway and remain on the taxiway. However, NHK, citing a source within the coast guard, reported that the pilot of the coast guard plane received clearance to take off. It also reported that police were investigating possible professional negligence as a cause of the incident.

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